NEW DISCOVERIES IN BETTY HILL'S STAR MAP


written by

Joachim Koch and Hans-Juergen Kyborg

©1993,1995, Berlin, Germany-English version co-edited by Doug Girling, Vancouver, Canada,©1995


Contents:

  1. Abstract
  2. Introduction
  3. The "Star Map" - What do we Know?
  4. Some Considerations About Betty Hill's Descriptions
  5. The Discovery
  6. The Results
  7. "And he said that he wished I knew more about this..."
  8. Afterword
  9. Bibliography

Abstract

THE story of Betty and Barney Hill is well known in UFOlogy: during a 1961 abduction, Betty Hill was shown a "star map" by one of the aliens, a map which she was able to later draw after hypnotic regression. The most promising interpretation of this map, made by Ms. Marjorie Fish in 1972, was that the aliens' home system was in the double-star system Zeta Reticuli.

We present here a new interpretation of Betty Hill's map: that it is a view of our solar system at the time of the abduction, from a viewpoint slightly beyond Planet Saturn, looking towards the Sun. We believe that this interpretation fits more of the data than the Fish interpretation. We also believe, in the context of Mrs. Hill's abduction experience, that it is more rational for the alien to first use a display of the local solar system to determine Mrs. Hill's astronomical knowledge. 


1. Introduction

THE UFO abduction case of Betty and Barney Hill is the first one that became known to a greater public. It is well investigated and documented for many times.

On September 19, 1961, beneath a clear starry sky, the Hills drove down a road in New Hampshire, USA, in a southerly direction. They were on their way back home at the end of a short holiday trip. The crescent moon (ca. 60% of the full moon disc) was in the sky, and to the left of it, the planets Jupiter and Saturn could be seen next to each other.

Suddenly a bright glowing craft appeared below left of the Moon and moved towards the Hills with a variable flight path. In the course of the event, a close encounter with non-human entities happened, and Betty and Barney were taken aboard a spaceship where both were physically examined.

During a conversation with one of the entities, whom Betty Hill called the "leader," she asked him where they come from. He showed something to her which she later described as a "star map." At the end of the encounter, the Hills were carried out of the craft.

They went back to their car and drove off. The Hills had no immediate recall of the abduction event - this period of time is locked between a series of beeps the Hills perceived at the beginning and at the end. After the second series of beeps had sounded and the consciousness of the Hills cleared up, they found themselves 35 miles removed from their initial stopping place and noticed a difference of time of two hours.

In the time following, both suffered from psychosomatic complaints, and looked for medical treatment. Hypnotic regressions were finally carried out by Dr. Benjamin Simon, Boston, a psychiatrist, during the following month. He broke through the mental block that was imposed on the Hills by the aliens and reconstructed the complete sequence of events and revealed their whole implications.

(Betty Hill's map) With the help of posthypnotic suggestion, Betty succeeded in redrawing essential parts of the "star map" she had seen aboard the spaceship. The whole abduction case was re-enacted in detail by John G. Fuller in his book The Interrupted Journey [1]. Here, the transcripts of the tapes from the hypnosis sessions were extensively used. The rough drafts which Betty and Barney had drawn, the locality, the entities, the spaceship and the "star map" are depicted in the illustrations section (no page number) of the book.

In 1966, Mrs. Marjorie E. Fish, of Ohio, became aware of Betty Hill's map. She had the idea that here was something that could be checked. Either it represented a real set of stars which might be found and tell us something about the aliens, or it might have been remembered too poorly to help, or it was totally fictitious. Even if a similar set of stars was found, it might be coincidental. But, unlike most UFO reports, the possibilities could be examined and the date re-checked.[2] Exobiological considerations show that single main sequence stars of class F8, G to non-variable K0 stars have the best chance for planets with life, including intelligent life. All in all, stars like our sun are the best candidates to support life on planets orbiting in their ecozone.

(Marjori Fish's interpretation) In December 1968, Mrs. Fish had completed a three-dimensional model of the nearer surroundings of our sun. It included stars up to 10 parsecs distance (1 parsec = 3,262 ly - ly = light-year). Mrs. Fish used different pearls for her model which were fixed on monofilament thread at the particular position of each star. In 1969, the new edition of the "Catalogue of Nearby Stars" by W. Gliese was printed. With the new data some of the star positions could be corrected. Altogether, 23 star models were constructed! After final variations Mrs. Fish thought to have found a pattern of stars similar to that in Betty's "map" and it was, to a certain degree, very logical. Work on all the stars in the "map" was tentatively concluded in February 1973 (see sketch on page 77 of the MUFON proceedings of 1974).

The first publication about the "star map" was an article of Stanton T. Friedman in the July 1973 issue of SAGA. He also discussed Mrs. Fish's work in his July 1973 MUFON paper. Marjorie Fish's MUFON paper was presented in July 1974. The ASTRONOMY article by T. Dickinson was published in December, 1975, and the 32 page special edition of ASTRONOMY in 1976 entitled "The Zeta Reticuli Incident." This began a heated and controversial debate that has not stopped to this day.

We, Joachim Koch and Hans-Juergen Kyborg, would like to stress that it is not our aim to minimize the painstaking work of Mrs. Marjorie Fish. With her admirable effort she has led our view up into our cosmic neighborhood and without her, many among us wouldn't even know that her favorite star system of Zeta Reticuli exists. She always thought the "map" to be a star map as Betty thought the same, too.

By re-investigating the available material, we found clues that the "map" showed something different, something much closer, something more familiar and easier for Betty to identify than a star system that is about 42 ly away from us and is additionally shown from a vantage point on its far side.

In the context of the whole story of what happened to Betty, it becomes clear that the "leader" intended to show something different to her, something that makes far more sense than what was presumed to be the contents of the "map" so far. We discovered a more plausible explanation and would like to present it now to you all. We are also well aware that, by this time, Zeta Reticuli has become a real myth.

Since the Hill's abduction, many have claimed to have received messages and channels of different kinds from "those from Zeta Reticuli" and even some of the little Greys are said to be related to Zeta Reticuli. There are many rumors about the activities of these Greys and unfortunately this changed the image of this star system to the negative. Well - leave this all behind for the moment because this has nothing to do with the Hill case.

Let's start a new journey into the Hill "star map" with a fresh and open mind. First, it is necessary to have close look at what Betty originally stated while she was under hypnosis, what she had dreamed during the weeks after the abduction, and while she was interviewed later in a TV-show. 


2. The "Star Map" - What do we Know?

BETTY stood in the same room aboard the spaceship where she was examined before. She was alone with the "leader." He didn't answer her question about their origin but asked her instead if she knew anything about the universe. Betty replied:

"...And I told him no. I knew practically nothing. That when I was in graduate school we were taught that the sun was the center of the solar system, and there were nine planets. And then later, of course, we did make advances. And I told him about seeing, I think I met him at one time, Harlow Shapley; he wrote a book, too. And I had seen photographs that he had taken of millions and millions of stars in the universe. But that was about all I knew. So, he said that he wished I knew more about this, and I said I wish I did, too. And he went across the room to the head of the table and he did something, he opened up, it wasn't like a drawer, he sort of did something and the metal of the wall, here was an opening. And he pulled out a map, and he asked me had I ever seen a map like this before. And I walked across the room and I leaned against the table. And I looked at it. And it was a map-it was an oblong map. It wasn't square. It was a lot wider than it was long. And there were all these dots on it. And they were scattered all over it. Some were little, just pin points. And others were as big as a nickel. And there were lines, there were on some of the dots, there were curved lines going from one dot to another. And there was one big circle, and it had a lot of lines coming out from it. A lot of lines going to another circle quite close, but not as big. And these were heavy lines. And I asked him what they meant. And he said that the heavy lines were trade routes. And then the other lines, the other lines, the solid lines were places they went occasionally. He said the broken lines were expeditions...

"So I asked him where was his home port, and he said "Where were you on the map?" I looked and laughed and said "I don't now." So he said, "If you don't know where you are, then there isn't any point of my telling where I am from." And he put the map-the map rolled up, and he put it back in the space in the wall and closed it."

-- From a transcript of a hypnotic regression session [3].

In a television interview [4] she retells the scene in this way: "I don't know if there was an opening in the wall or just what made out of sight and hide the map. He didn't pull down anything like that" - here Betty made a movement with her hand as if she would pull down a rolled up map - "and it was probably about two by three feet. And it was almost - it was all realistic - like looking at the sky and even some of the objects seemed to be slowly moving. He asked me if I knew where we are on the map and I told him 'no'. And he said, well, if I didn't know any basic information then it will be impossible for him to show me where they were from. And with that he put the star map he pushed something - and the map was gone."

In the dreams some weeks after the incident [5] she saw: "He went over to the wall and pulled down a map, strange to me. Now I would believe this to be a sky map. It was a map of heavens, with numerous sized stars and planets, some large some only pinpoints. Between many of these, lines were drawn, some broken lines, some light solid lines, some heavy black lines. They were not straight, not curved."

"Some went from one planet to another, to another, in a series of lines. Others had no lines, and he said the lines were expeditions. He asked me where the Earth was on this map, and I admitted that I had no idea. He became slightly sarcastic and said that if I did not know where the Earth was, it was impossible to show me where he was from; he snapped the map back into place."

These are Betty's accounts. Now let us emphasize the following facts: after some manipulations of the "leader" at the head of the table, an "opening" appears in the wall. It seems to Betty, as if she could see the "heavens", some of the visible fluorescent points are moving. In Fuller's book, she said under hypnosis that the "leader" pulled the "map" down. Anyway, she has the impression of a three-dimensional arrangement of all the details in the "map". She looks from a distance of about one meter at the "map" which is scattered all over with fluorescent points of various size, colour and brightness [6].

There are no grid-lines in the 3 foot (about 0,9 m) long by 2 foot (about 0,6 m) high "map". In the foreground, there are two big circles which are connected by heavy black lines. From the big circle more distant to the viewers eye some solid lines are coming out and connect some smaller points in different directions and distances which are connected by broken (dotted) lines with some even smaller points.

Upon her question, Betty was told that the heavy lines symbolize "trade routes," the light solid lines connect places they travel occasionally, and the broken lines are "expeditions" they did some time. Betty went on to ask where the homeport of the entities was. Instead of giving an answer, again he asked her: "Where were you on the map?" Betty could not answer this question as much as she would like to, whereupon she was told: "If you don't know where you are, then there isn't any point of my telling where I am from." He made the "map" disappear and with this the "opening" in the wall disappeared, too. Betty asked him to show her the map again, but he refused with a laugh. 


3. Some Considerations About Betty Hill's Descriptions

BETTY is able to redraw the pattern of dots and lines under posthypnotic suggestion. She doesn't know which part of the "heavens" was shown to her. In particular, her question about the homeport of the entities remained unanswered. In addition to the main pattern, some of the dots which were not connected stay in her memory and appear in her sketch.

To understand the following discussion, it is very important to first make some things very clear:

Betty likes to know, where the entities do come from. The "leader" answers this question not simply by telling her the name of a certain star system or planet but asks her basically about her knowledge of the universe. He gets the definitive indication that Betty merely knows the number of planets in our solar system and perhaps their names and that she has seen the night sky, of course. Because of this he expresses the wish to impart more knowledge to Betty, and then, after manipulating at the head of the table, he makes visible this "opening" in the wall and with this, the "map".

At this point, we harbour grave doubts about Betty's interpretation that she had seen a "star map".

One can find a central thread in the order of questions in the conversation between Betty and the "leader." The "leader" never directly answers Betty's question where they might come from, but instead asks a question about her astronomical knowledge. It seems that before he can talk to Betty about such complicated things as distant foreign star systems, he has to know if Betty is able to follow him at all. He must learn that Betty has limited knowledge, and comments on this with the remark that he wished that she knew more about "the universe". An understandable desire, similar to trying to explain one's own origin in a distant country to someone who doesn't even know the next crossroad at the end of the street where they live.

Betty would like to know more about the stars and so the teacher makes the map appear and the lesson starts. Without having learned even one chapter, the impatient pupil Betty wants to know again where the entities come from. She cannot talk the teacher out of his teaching concept and so he asks his first question: "Where are you on the map?" This "map" must be of a kind where even Betty has a chance to recognize something, because he now knows that she has only minimal knowledge about her solar system. He doesn't ask her for special items but for the simplest and most obvious: her home. It remains open whether the "home" planet or simply the sun is meant.

Betty doesn't know what to do with this "map." The slightly sarcastic undertone of the teacher proves his disappointment: "If you not know where you are, then it is impossible for me to show you where I am from!" If she is completely unable to solve such a simple problem of identifying her home, then it really makes no sense to continue the lesson. The "map" vanishes. (By the way, nowhere is Betty quoted as saying that the aliens' homeport of the aliens is - or is not- on the "map".)

Was it - according to Mrs. Fish - really Zeta Reticuli that Betty saw in the big circles in the foreground? Should it be just so as to see the strange and far away object (Zeta Reticuli) really big in the foreground and the known and familiar object (the Sun) very small in the background? Were there indications in the "map" that would have made it easier for Betty to recognize the Earth?

Have all the proponents of the "Zeta Reticuli interpretation" missed something? 


4. The Discovery

MANY months passed by before we here in Germany finally obtained a specimen of John G. Fuller's long out-of-print book, "The Interrupted Journey." Here we saw Betty and Barney Hill's original sketches for the first time. From MUFON-USA we obtained photocopies of Mrs. Fish's article from the UFO-Symposium 1974 and from Stanton T. Friedman, an offprint of the "The Zeta Reticuli Incident" from ASTRONOMY magazine. Thanks to all.

Betty Hill's map and Margorie Fish's Zeta Reticuli interpretation are show in schematic form in figure 1.

Schematic from Betty Hill's sketch Marjorie Fish's interpretation
Legend:
1) Zeta 1 Reticuli 5) Gliese 86 9) Kappa Fornacis D) 107 Piscium
2) Sun 6) Gliese 59 A) Tau 1 Eridani E) 57 Piscium
3) Alpha Mansae 7) Gliese 86.1 B) 82 Eridani F) Gliese 67
4) Zeta 2 Reticuli 8) Gliese 95 C) Tau Ceti

Figure 1. Betty Hill map and Marjorie Fish interpretation

Actually, there were only minor details that puzzled us. But even these minor details led us to our discoveries. Those who know Betty Hill's map will remember the small circle which is located approximately half way between the middle and the upper margin of the sketch. This small circle was not contained in Mrs. Fish's sketches in the MUFON article (see her sketch in the Proceedings, pages 77f).

Such a conspicuous object could not be seen in the picture of her model on page 5 of the ASTRONOMY magazine offprint, whereas it could be seen in the sketch, drawn by the magazine's artist, on page 10, where it had no name. What was going on with this small circle? Why did no one identify this object?

Furthermore, we realized that Mrs. Fish had marked only one of circles of her "Zeta Reticuli" with a little curved "equatorial" line in the MUFON article, whereas in the article of ASTRONOMY magazine this little curved line was found in each of the circles in the various sketches. Since we could compare the sketches with the original in Fuller's book, we noticed that the small curved lines were drawn in each of the circles by Betty Hill, too. What was their meaning?

Why do "Zeta Reticuli I and II" (shown as "(=)" in figure 1a) have these "abdominal bandages?" Do they symbolize something? An equatorial line? Orbits? Ring-shaped structures like Saturn and Jupiter? Perhaps the big circles in the foreground ARE Saturn and Jupiter.

While Mrs. Fish's "Journey into the Hill Star Map" has remained controversial in the astronomical community since it as published in 1976, it has gained broad acceptance in the mainstream UFOlogy community. Against this quasi-orthodoxy, our idea seemed to be almost too bold. However, with the energy of this little flicker that there might be something true in our thoughts, we switched on the computer [8]. After some inputs to the program, the sky that Betty and Barney Hill had seen in the night from 19 to 20 September lit up on the monitor in front of us. We adjusted the southern direction and discovered the planets Jupiter and Saturn very close to each other to the left of the Moon. When we here on Earth see two planets very close together in the sky, this means that in reality they are staying in the same sector of space in their orbits. In fact, the orbits are very far apart to each other and so they only seem close together due to the perspective of our line of sight.

If you are having difficulty visualizing this, imagine a globe, with its lines of latitude and longitude. Instead of a globe of the Earth, however, it is transparent, with a transparent disk inside, where the equator is. The sun is at the center of the globe, with the orbits of the planets drawn as circles on the disk. This equatorial disk is called the "plane of the ecliptic," which is often shortened to the "ecliptic plane" or simply the "ecliptic." Because all the planets lie in the ecliptic, we need only the sun-centered (i.e., "heliocentric") longitude to specify where a planet is. (Readers may wish to consult an introductory astronomy text for illustrations and further explanation.)

If we look at the geometry of the planets on the night of the Hill's abduction, we draw a line from the Earth to Jupiter (from a point on the 3rd orbit to one on the 6th orbit). Now extend the line to Saturn's orbit, and we will find Saturn very near to the intersection of the line and the orbit. If we now look along the line from the Earth end towards the Saturn end, the real distance between Jupiter and Saturn is visually foreshortened so that they look very near each other. When dealing with outer planets, this visual situation occurs when they have a similar heliocentric longitude, as they were that night (see table 2).

Mrs. Fish assumed that the two big circles in the three-dimensional map perspective stood in the foreground. What would happen if we instead assumed that the circles were Jupiter and Saturn in the foreground? With some circles and dots of our graphics program, we made a position-true copy of the planetary constellation of that memorable night from the sight of an observer at 90 N ecliptic latitude (i.e., directly above the North Pole of the solar system - the Sun) with a view directly down on the orbits of the planets. Then we switched to perspective mode and decreased the ecliptic latitude. (Recalling our globe model, we are moving from the North Pole down to the Equator.) We stopped at 30 N ecliptic latitude (equivalent to the latitude of the pyramids of Gizeh) because going further down South would risk loosing the top view on the plane of the ecliptic (i.e., the view of the planetary orbits).

Then we rotated the whole solar system around its North-South axis until Jupiter and Saturn were placed in the lower right corner of the monitor. With a pulse rate of 120 we witnessed the result of our manipulations: on the bottom right was Saturn and, closer to the center of the screen, was Jupiter. As we know from the VOYAGER probe (but which Betty could not know), both planets have rings of different extent and size, as well as numerous moons and bigger satellites from 5262 km (Ganymede, Jupitersystem) down to 16 km (XIII Leda, Jupitersystem) diameter. The characteristic ring around Saturn is already clearly visible from Earth with strong binoculars or a small telescope. In the same way the two strong North- and South- equatorial bands on Jupiter are easily to identify as brown horizontal lines (the "railroad tracks") across the planet's tiny visible disc.

On the monitor (see figure 2), was our Earth above the center and a little bit shifted to the right. Left of her, Mercury and Venus had their actual positions and below the center, Mars sat on his place. With the cursor we drew connection lines from Saturn to Jupiter, from there to Earth, to Mercury, Venus and Mars. With a slight groan we leaned back. In front of our eyes was dancing, somewhat crookedly, but already with an unmistakable resemblance of a major part of the pattern seen in Betty Hill's "star map." And right at the place of the small circle we saw in Betty's map and which was missed in Mrs. Fish's sketch, was located the SUN.

Marjorie Fish interpretation Koch-Kyborg interpretation
  Legend:
  Fish Koch-Kyborg   Fish Koch-Kyborg
1 Zeta 1 Reticuli Jupiter 9 Kappa Fornacis  
2 Sun Earth A Tau 1 Eridani Europa
3 Alpha Mansae Pallas B 82 Eridani Mercury
4 Zeta 2 Reticuli Saturn C Tau Ceti Venus
5 Gliese 86 Mars D 107 Piscium Pretoria
6 Gliese 59 Interamnia E 57 Piscium Daphne
7 Gliese 86.1   F Gliese 67 Psyche
8 Gliese 95   S   Sun

Figure 2. The Fish and Koch-Kyborg interpretations of Betty Hill's star map


The similarity to Betty's map was so provocative that there was no way back for us. The champions Zeta Reticuli I and II had a new challenger: our own solar system.

Carl Sagan and Steven Soter criticized Marjorie E. Fish's model of Betty Hill's map in a 1974 issue of ASTRONOMY[9], saying: "However, we can always pick and choose from a large random data set some subset that resembles a preconceived pattern. If we are free also to select the vantage point (from all possible directions for viewing the projection of a three dimensional pattern), it is a matter to optimize the desired resemblance. Of course such a resemblance in the case of selection from a random set is a contrivance - an example of the statistical fallacy known as 'the enumeration of favourable circumstances'."

Now it was a matter of finding a planetary constellation that matched the Hill pattern completely. Moreover, unlike a star field where one is free to "pick and choose" from a set of what are essentially fixed points, here no single planet could be arbitrarily placed elsewhere to bend it to one's own pattern. There only could be a simultaneous changing of all planetary positions according to their real relations as determined by planetary mechanics.

Now it was necessary to use another computer program which displayed especially and in detail the positions of the planets [10]. When Saturn and Jupiter are in the lower right corner in the foreground, it must be viewed from above the ecliptic and between the orbits of Saturn and Uranus looking in the direction towards the inner solar system. While the heavy lines there would be between Saturn and Jupiter, the solid lines would come radially out of Jupiter and connect the inner planets. But which ones? During a first test, Mercury was disturbing with a separate line that wasn't in the pattern of Betty's map. We changed the date a bit and could see how the planets were moving. Now it was clear that we had to choose another date but it should be one in immediate connection to the period of the abduction. We had to go back to Betty's story once again.

There is a period of about one month after the abduction where two important events happened. One night, Betty started to have nightmares which continued the next five nights. In her dreams, the whole abduction scenario took place again. After five nights her dreams about the abduction abruptly stopped and never occurred again. The other event happened during a trip through a lonesome landscape near Portsmouth where Betty rushed in great panic as they approached another car that blocked half of the road as if it had a breakdown.

Some dark dressed people were standing around the car. Betty suddenly felt really terrified by the appearance of this small dark group and started to open the front passenger door to jump out and run away. Barney was deeply concerned about her reaction, and they sped away as fast as they could. Both were unable to explain this panic reaction.

On October 19, one month after the abduction had taken place, Walter Webb, at that time from Hayden Planetarium, Boston, received a letter from Richard Hall, at this time Assistant Director of the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. Attached to this letter was a copy of a letter from Betty Hill. Webb investigated the more serious reports about UFO events around in the New England area [11]. After he had read the letter he decided to investigate the case and to drive to the Hill's home what he finally did on October 21, 1961.

After that time nothing similar to nightmares or strange encounters happened again. It seemed to us as if here was a significant intersection in the course of the story, as if the "Others" exerted a certain control on things for a short while after the abduction and then finally terminated this. As a coincidence with Webb the phase of serious investigation of the whole case started.

So we chose to look for the planetary constellation the date of October 20, 1961, 1:00 am, exactly one month after the abduction event. After this period of time all planets had moved a short distance in their orbits. A remarkably larger step was done by Mercury, the fastest planet in our solar system. Again we connected the planets with lines and - there it was!

Except for a branch which had to leave right of Jupiter, the complete pattern in Hill's map formed by the dots which were connected by heavy or solid lines was present: one line to the right led to Earth (that Betty couldn't find), the line a little left of this went to Mercury and then a little bit curved around the Sun (the small "forgotten" circle in Fish's sketch) to Venus. In our model, the long horizontal and curved line we have seen in Betty's map more in the foreground, went below the Sun right to Mars. In Betty's sketch it was slightly more stressed than the line to Earth was. If the size of the lines was equivalent to the importance that was given to them by the "Entities" than here was good reason for especially delicate speculations. Remember the ongoing discussion about the so called "unusual surface features" on Mars as well as the Phobos II and Mars Observer Missions.

We had erected the outline - the skeleton - of the pattern in Betty Hill's map. Now only the rest was missing, the target locations of the so-called "expeditions." We first thought that the two broken lines coming out of Mars should be further connections to the outer planets. Actually, at that time the three missing planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto were all on the "left side" of Betty's map. It would have been too good if we could have included them into the pattern but they were too far out and would have seriously distorted the pattern.

Additionally, there were the dots left to find connected by a line that started from Venus and connected expedition places unknown to us so far. Furthermore, the right offshoot of Jupiter was still missing that, according to the size of its connection line, must have been a place of frequent visits. The whole thing became suspenseful because what should be there?

Intuition is one of the most important human qualities, and without intuition we wouldn't have reached this point. Therefore, we think it necessary to state some of the thoughts that led us from one discovery to the next one. If we were to find out how things could continue, we had to try to put ourselves in the role of a UFOnaut. What would we do if we, as a species that has been spacefaring for many hundreds of years, entered an alien solar system?

First we quickly would determine how many planets are part of this solar system. From previous analysis of the central rotating star we would know the distance of the life-zone around the star. We would approach near this habitable zone "from above" or "from below" the orbital plane of the inner planets and would complete our analysis.

Actually, if there would be life-forms on any of the planets, we would study their state of development from a discrete distance at first. Certainly, we would place our own security first in any encounters with the life-bearing worlds. We would send out patrols - both unmanned and manned - to determine what is going on and would choose a place that would provide us with a maximum vantage point without being detected.

After this, we would deal with the most obvious: our supplies. We would possibly need energy (of some kind) and raw materials such as ores to make ourselves more at home, to establish an infrastructure, or conceivably, to be able to make the return journey. If we classified the life-forms that we had located as "primitive," then perhaps we could land on their planet and do some mining undetected. If the life-forms had reached a higher lever of technological development, especially if they could perform some simple spacefaring, our own security would be paramount, and we would have to go prospecting in the more distant environs. Then we would identify the relatively narrow belt of asteroids orbiting around the central star. There, we could prospect for the needed resources. Of course, only the larger ones would be suitable for our purposes because of their more stable orbit and their gravitation. To determine that, we had to send some expeditions.

After this indispensable fantasy trip to our own future (or past...) it became very clear: to find the missing positions of the rest of the dots to match the pattern of Betty Hill's map, we should look for a solution in the belt of asteroids. The large number of known asteroids would make it easy to draw arbitrary lines to positions of asteroids in the vicinity of Mars, Venus and Jupiter to get a pattern according to the Hill's model. We couldn't expose ourselves to Sagan's and Soter's criticism at this juncture, and so, with respect to the thoughts in the chapters above, we restricted ourselves to the following conditions: only the largest asteroids should included in our concept and then only if they were in positions corresponding to Betty's map on October 20., 1961. An exciting search began.

One of the most beautiful astronomical books we possess is "The New Solar System" from J. Kelly Beatty and Andrew Chaikin [12]. On page 293 is a table listing the 46 largest asteroids with radii down to 87 km. We took this table as a database for our search for the targets of the expeditions and made up 4 groups of asteroids with the help of the database of our computer program (that contains about 5000 asteroids).

These were ranked by descending size: asteroids 1-10, asteroids 11-20, asteroids 21-30 and asteroids 31-46. We gradually added the planetary constellation of the night of 20.10.61 to each of the groups of asteroids and analyzed the compatibility of the overall picture to the "Hill pattern".

We first constructed a sketch where all 6 planets (our skeleton) and 46 asteroids where symbolized by equal-sized dots, except the Sun, which was symbolized by a tiny circle (as in the Hill map). Of course, it would be simple in this chaos of dots to produce a "Hill pattern" by drawing corresponding lines. This stopped immediately when we added perspective to our sketch and additionally plotted the orbits. There, the wheat separated from the chaff. Dots which were so comfortably located beside Venus were, in reality, far above or below the ecliptic plane on this side of the sun (according to Betty's viewpoint). Several times we changed the angles of the ecliptic longitude and latitude for the several groups of asteroids and achieved, step by step, a selection of the only possible asteroids.

On October 20, 1961, 1:00 AM UT (Universal Time), there were at the right time at the right place:


Table 1. Asteroids

Starting From Asteroid Size Ranking
Venus 790 Pretoria 39th largest
  41 Daphne 35th largest
  16 Psyche 10th largest
Mars 704 Interamnia 6th largest
  52 Europa 7th largest
Jupiter 2 Pallas 2nd largest

This selection produces a valid match in the computer program for 30 ecliptic latitude (i.e., direction of view from 30 ecliptic North down to ecliptic South) and 95 ecliptic longitude.

We deliberately chose to not attempt to interpret all the small dots Betty had plotted beside the main pattern. We originally concentrated only on the main pattern for several reasons. First, the three dots to the left (identified as 7, 8, and 9 in figure 2) were not emphasized in Betty's original sketch. This was brought up and interpreted by Mrs. Fish, possibly after some talks with Betty. Second, Mrs. Fish discounted some more small dots that Betty had drawn equal in size to the ones in the triangle. Remember, that she even dropped from her analysis, the small circle above the center that caught one's eye in Betty's original sketch. Third, even in Fuller's book there are two different sketches of Betty drawn at different times with additional dots in different locations. Fourth, as we have written previously, we do not trust Betty's astronomical abilities (as the "leader" had not done, too) in drawing three-dimensional star maps. This ice was too thin to walk across so we initially concentrated on the things that have been repeated several times more or less identically: the main pattern.

But in the meantime many have asked us about the three dots (numbered 7-9 in figure 1). We have since revisited the original material we used for our discoveries.

On the left hand side of the sketch, inside this horizontal laying V-shaped part, Betty drew three dots. Mrs. Fish found her correspondence in objects which she gave the numbers 13, 14 and 15 in her MUFON Proceedings paper. No. 13 is HD 13435, No. 14 is GC 2794 and No. 15 is Kappa Fornacis.

It is striking, that the pattern of these three suns in Mrs. Fish's sketch is more similar if not identical to three dots we have in our material: No. 13 (Fish) is Asteroid Winchester, No. 14 is Asteroid Nemesis and No. 15 is Asteroid Elpis. We always stayed with our initial assumption only to look for the 40 biggest asteroids. These three asteroids formed a triangle at that time.

But we have another triangle there which would be more impressive because one member is a star. It is HD 41335 (SAO 132793) with visual brightness of 5.2m (i.e., a 5th magnitude star) which is near the limit of visibility with the naked eye. Left of this star we have two asteroids which all together create a wonderful triangle: asteroid Hermione and Asteroid Eunomia.

Which triangle did Betty remember? If any...

We would plead for HD 41335 (which would become No. 8 in Figure 2 left side; the triangle there is not quite right, No. 8 must be moved to the right and No. 7 and No. 9 to the left), No. 7 would become Hermione and No. 9 would become Eunomia. Both asteroids are far more than 100 km in radius (bigger than Winchester, Nemesis and Elpis) and they were above the ecliptic plane at that time, which means closer to the supposed point of view behind Saturn.

And there are more dots in Betty Hill's "map". These weren't mentioned by Mrs. Fish at all. In our analysis of 1993 we found at least 6 asteroids which match additional dots of Betty' sketch. See figure 3 below:

Figure 3. Additional Matches to Betty Hill's Map

Again we would like to stress that it was our original intention only to deal with the main pattern in Betty's drawings, because this seemed to have been recollected accurately and repeatedly by her. We do not trust her other dots very much as we have explained in the text: she was not good at drawing and she could not draw perspective. Perhaps she distributed the smaller dots in the sketch without any correspondence to what really might have been in what was shown to her, just to indicate that something else was there.

During the demonstration of the map by the "leader", Betty Hill leaned backwards against the examination table and didn't change her position. Consequently, she saw the three-dimensional map only from one viewpoint during the whole time. She memorized exactly this view of the map and recalled it in this way. Who knows what would have happened to the main pattern if she had changed her viewpoint?

This is most important because many of the critics on Betty's accounts, Mrs. Fish's findings, and our discovery are based on the "arbitrariness of the vantage point". You MUST search for only this one perspective, not for hundreds or, with the help of a computer, for millions because Betty had only this one perspective as she watched the map and so she had drawn the sketch. In any model you MUST simulate Betty's vantage point in the space ship as she looked into a "map" that itself had a vantage point and perspective, too. The view in the "map" was not randomly created but rather deliberately chosen by the "leader" because its purpose was to show something very special to Betty.

Naturally, our "model" matches best Betty's pattern from one angle, too, which is 30° Northern ecliptic latitude and 95° ecliptic longitude. But even if we neglect perspective as, for example at 90° ecliptic latitude (i.e., the view directly down from the Pole) or other ecliptic latitudes, great parts of the pattern remain visible! Only the asteroids at great angle of orbital inclination above or below the plane of planetary orbits move significantly. Beside this, we found perspectives where the "Hill pattern" hardly could derived from (for example, at 0° ecliptic latitude and 310°ecliptic longitude). But this was exactly what Marjorie E. Fish, we, and others were searching for: a realistic correspondence to Betty's pattern.

5. The Results

THE striking coincidence of the map pattern that was shown to Betty aboard the space ship to the actual constellation of our planetary system around the time of the abduction is not by chance, it was fully intended.

In logical consequence of her stated astronomical knowledge, PLANETS, NOT STARS are shown to her. To make it easier for her, a constellation of planets is chosen that really exists at the time of the abduction.

If Betty remembered the pattern during the weeks after, for example, she could have asked about the positions of the planets at a local planetarium. To her surprise she would have then discovered her pattern and would have known that something real had happened. Was the reason for her dreams just to give her another chance to find out what was in the map? Additionally, with this special pattern within the planetary constellation the information's about the time when the abduction took place is saved for all time: "When in the height the planets..." [Enuma Elish]. Measuring time not with a wristwatch but by the positions of planets is indeed a very tempting thought and is compatible and comparable to other planetary systems.

All the planets that are visible to the naked eye are depicted. Betty had two of them, Saturn and Jupiter, in her view during their trip Southwards that night. This was exactly the direction from which the UFO approached! In the "star map" the two are placed very conspicuously in the foreground and they had both have these half-circle "bands" in their pictures. It seems that these were shoved under Betty's nose with the hope that she would recognize the two bodies and then identify the Earth much easier to give the right answer to the question: "Where are you on the map?" If she understood the principle of the map, she would likely have come to the rest of the exercise.

The choice of planets and asteroids is significantly interesting. Saturn and Jupiter have an outstanding importance according to the quality of their connection lines on the map. They are the largest planets in the solar system and possess, what we know since VOYAGER, a large number of satellites with exceedingly interesting and useful compositions - abundant water, for example on Ganymede and Callisto.

Perhaps Jupiter and Saturn do have other useful qualities for an intelligence that knows more about the cosmos than we do. For example, is it possible that an entrance-port to our solar system lies between Jupiter and Saturn - as written in Arthur C. Clarke's fictional 2001: A Space Odyssey? We can also speculate about the importance of Mars on the map in light of the mountain in the alleged shape of a humanoid face, or read all the interesting things about Saturn's polar region found by the VOYAGER spacecraft [13].

All lines coming out of Jupiter have one thing in common: they lead to planetary bodies that you can land on with bigger space ships. Mars, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and the asteroids; each object represents something special and offers its own reasons for being visited. According to the quality of lines these visits happen frequently - and must have happened in the past if we take the "leader" at face value.

Here on Earth we all know about the UFO phenomenon. Many thousands have testified that "Somebody" is visiting us again and again as. The last big UFO wave of 1989 in Belgium is still alive in our memory [14]. Many artifacts from our own human history were cause for speculation and scientific conflicts because they did not fit our world view of the origin of civilization. But - the artifacts remain, nonetheless.

Mars, an ideal and peaceful viewing point to watch activities here on Earth - better than the Moon because of a lesser risk of being detected - should have revealed in 1994 whether or not there are indeed artificial features on its surface in the Cydonia region [15]. Together with Earth, Mars would be then the second planet where inopportune artifacts could existing. Unfortunately the Mars Observer Probe failed a few days before Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI). We will have to wait until the findings from the Mars Global Surveyor are published.

Then there is Mercury where there is distinct interest by the UFOnauts because it is connected by a solid line with Jupiter. In 1973-74 the terrestrial probe MARINER 10 flew to Mercury and photographed approximately 45% of its moonlike planetary surface. Mercury is exotic among the planetary family because it has a disproportionately high percentage of iron in its composition. The metallic cores of planets and iron meteorites the normally rare siderophile (i.e., in the nickel-iron cores of planets, asteroids and meteorites enriched) elements of the platinum group are often found in a higher concentration. On Mercury, no artifacts are known so far.

From Mercury, expedition lines lead on to Venus. Despite the fact that Venus is Earthlike in size, it is not among the more frequently visited places. As we already know, one is very unlikely to stroll on its surface because there is an "air" pressure of 90 bar and a temperature of approximately +470° Celsius. The thick greenhouse-atmosphere consists of about 96% carbon dioxide, would never let you see the stars. The "rain" on Venus consists of pure sulfuric acid. These very uncomfortable conditions make Venus worthy for only one or two expeditions and the flight went on to the asteroids.

We remind the reader here of our restriction that practically only the biggest asteroids should have chosen for expeditions. Actually, in the positions to have a realistic reproduction of the Hill's pattern, there were 6 of the 46 largest asteroids, among them the second largest of all, Pallas! A remarkable success for an experimental condition that was formulated "off the cuff" after some imaginative thoughts. Even these six exhibit some surprising characteristics.

All six asteroids belong to the group of the so called "Amor-Asteroids" that never cross Earth's orbit. Our small group even stays beyond the Martian orbit and members never come dangerously close to either of these two planets. Each one of the asteroids has a different angle of orbital inclination to the ecliptic plane. If one would sit on one of our six asteroids and would make a trip around the inner planets, one would have a wide view of the whole system, sometimes from below, sometimes from above.

Surprisingly, among the six asteroids we found, Pallas has the greatest angle of orbital inclination of 34.81° of the greatest asteroids. No other asteroid swings up so high above the ecliptic plane before, like a cosmic Ferris wheel, flying below it with the same distance. With its diameter of 914 km, it would provide ideal conditions for a permanent observatory of the whole solar system.

"Somebody" would not have to go to the trouble of constructing and orbiting an artificial free-flight space station and would never have to worry of being detected. The connection line from Jupiter to Pallas is drawn as a strong line in Betty Hill's map which means the UFOnauts attach some importance to Pallas.

The expedition lines starting at Venus remind us a bit of the epoch-making flights and swing-by maneuvers of the VOYAGER probes around the planets. Initially it goes down below the ecliptic plane "into the cellar" to 790 Pretoria (orbital inclination 20.55°), then up "to the next floor" to 41 Daphne (orbital inclination 15.78°) and finally to 16 Psyche (orbital inclination 3.09°) as the final point and so nearly back to the ecliptic plane.

16 Psyche is a very interesting asteroid, too. It is of the category of the M-type asteroids which have moderate albedos (i.e., ability to reflect sunlight). Their spectra reveal a nickel-iron composition. These asteroids may be pure metallic bodies, perhaps formed by collisions of other asteroids where the rocky crust and mantel was lost and the iron cores melted together to a new celestial body. Radar examinations have shown that 16 Psyche indeed has such a high metal composition [16]. So this expedition route that started at strong ferrugiuous Mercury finds its end at a strong ferrugiuous asteroid.

The expedition lines which came out of Mars do not simply go anywhere but directly to two of the largest asteroids: Europa (orbital inclination 7.44) and Interamnia (orbital inclination 17.30). 


6. "And he said that he wished I knew more about this..."

NOW it seems easier to understand why the "leader" makes the map disappear when Betty, despite all the mnemonic aids cannot show where the Earth is. Betty's astronomical understanding surely cannot cope with the details of our solar system which are in the map. The "leader" has to realize that it is senseless to show Betty a completely alien solar system with all its specialities if she cannot recognize elementary things out of her own system.

Indeed it is difficult for the unaided eye to imagine suddenly looking down upon our planetary system from somewhere behind Saturn. In this context, Betty's words from the television program are interesting when she said: "...and it was almost [as if] it was all realistic - it was almost like looking at the sky and even some of the objects seemed to be slowly moving..."

Today we can imagine a computerized technology that is able to mix live-recordings of a video camera with some graphics and to project this combination as a hologram from outside into a room. Even this would not be necessary, as the entire scene could be easily modelled - as witnessed by the VOYAGER flypast animations from JPL. In this context one is tempted to speculate if perhaps this really was "live" what Betty saw. This would mean that the spaceship had ascended for some time - something that is well known from other abductions - but in the story there are no hints for such a lift-off at all.

Inside the spaceship, Betty Hill looks at a map where our solar system is shown around the time of the abduction, just like an actual report of the current mission of the UFOnauts. All places of activities or interest are connected with lines. At first glance, it nearly seems as if Betty in her sketch had drawn the shadow part of the planets because the sunlight comes from the middle of the sketch to the surface of the planets: in the map version shown in the television program Contact UFO - Alien Abduction, the "band" across the more distant large circle seems to be somewhat broader and double just as the equatorial bands on Jupiter. Just below of the foremost big circle there is a small half-ring slightly intimated which nearly looks as a segment of Saturn's ring. But because we haven't had Betty's original sketch to examine it can be that except the bands all other effects within the two big circles were caused by Betty's scrawling way of drawing.

Perhaps the two giant planets are indeed the endpoint of a "trade route", as the "leader" named it, right into our solar system when they both hover in this special alignment (conjunction) in the same space sector. Was it by accident that the UFO approached the Hills out of the direction Jupiter/Saturn? Perhaps the two planets together form a kind of "stargate" to higher dimensions and are starting points for jumps into space where we have no knowledge of so far.

The term "trade route" could be a lexical approximation. The "leader" could have meant "trade route", not in the sense of exchanging goods between 2 or more parties, but rather more like "supply line."

All the other connection lines bear an inner logic. To jump to Pallas is the obvious thing to do because the second largest asteroid has just arrived at the plane of the ecliptic on the course of its eccentric orbit at the time the Hills were abducted, and even more, it is not far away from Jupiter. What an ideal encounter.

Since there are no further expedition lines from Earth, this seems to indicate that it is the planet itself that is the special area of interest. With that, our planet has a special status in the Hill's pattern of solid lines. The lines to Mercury and beyond could easily be named the "iron-ore-route" because it started with Mercury, goes with a slight curve round the Sun to Venus, from there to the asteroid Pretoria and Daphne to stop at ferrugiuous Psyche. On this route it becomes clear that it is not an unmanipulated view of the solar system because the size of the sun and planets are changed in favour of the latter.

This too makes clear that - what so many believed in the past - that the "map" has no navigational spaceflight purpose for the entities. The "map" was there only for Betty.

The strong solid line from Jupiter to Mars, aside from perspective enlargement, or Betty's lack of drawing skill, could be a sign of frequent visits or great importance of Mars for the UFOnauts. We humans have just started to unravel the enigmas of our neighbor planet and perhaps we shall know in the next years whether our speculations about the strong connection lines to Mars were justified or not. One could accept similar reasons for the expedition lines to Europa, Interamnia, and to Pallas. The theory of placing artificial probes in a solar system with interesting developments, or to install hidden observation stations on solid bodies that circle these systems is not new.

A well known scientist called the opinion "'chauvinistic' that life elsewhere must be similar in general to ours" [17]. Another pillar of this way of thinking was the claim that the immense distances are an insurmountable obstacle to cover in "reasonable" lengths of time with "conventional" space flight facilities.

We do not share these overly-pessimistic opinions which, unnecessarily erect barriers that block the views and restrict the direction of mental movement.

We cannot leave such statements unanswered. At least we have to add the modifier: "...as far as we know." From our own past few centuries, we know about the enormous changes the scientific world views were subjected to. We don't know anything about extraterrestrial life except from the UFO phenomenon, the stone-aged myths of past cultures, or the telling of so many people who try in an unconventional way - according to the ruling paradigms of our present science - to get into the right mood for the cosmic vibrations they claim to have felt. "Somebody" created us to his/her/its image. It is not "chauvinistic" at all to ask if "Somebody" has done this somewhere else.

We have discovered that the pattern of Betty Hill's map corresponds to the actual constellation of the solar system at that time. The UFOnauts who abducted Betty and Barney Hill have proved an interest in organic and inorganic substances and bodies here in our solar system. They themselves are substantially tangible, they need flying equipment and they research a solar system in a way that makes sense.

This all is not "alien" to us. Surely it would be a great, if not the greatest shock for those who rule the world, that there is extraterrestrial life that is, apart of hardly-imaginable advanced technology and consciousness, more similar to us than we will accept at this time - or are allowed to.


Afterword

SEVERAL sketches are attached to the original paper but they cannot be transmitted via e-mail. It is essential for the understanding to look at the sketches drawn by Betty Hill, Mrs. Fish. If you can, please copy the all the sketches from Fuller's book, from the MUFON Proceedings and look for a copy of the ASTRONOMY magazine or its offprint. You should also switch on your computer and, if available, run the "Dance of the Planets" program. (We would like to stress that we do not advertise for this program here, but it was the one we used for our investigations.) If you do, please create a "users database" with the planets of our system and the asteroids from the program's own database as we have described in the text and look for the amazing patterns. You can connect the planets and asteroids - according to Betty's map - for yourself.

With this database, we used the perspectives listed in Table 2.


 

Table 2. Solar System 

Date (dd.mm.yy) Time (UT)  Solar Latitude Solar Longitude Notes 
20.09.61 01:00 am 90° 105°  
20.09.61 01:00 am 30° 105° With orbits printed
20.10.61 01:00 am 30° 100° With orbits printed 
20.10.61 01:00 am 90° 100°  
20.10.61 01:00 am 30° 95° With orbits 
20.10.61 01:00 am 30° 95° Without orbits, Hill pattern at its best!
" " " " As before, but with higher resolution 
" " " " As before, but additionally with orbits 
20.10.61 01:00 am 30° 185°  
20.10.61 01:00 am 30° 185° With Orbits
20.10.61 01:00 am 185° With orbits 
20.10.61 01:00 am 30° With orbits
20.10.61 01:00 am With orbits
20.10.61 01:00 am 310° With orbits
20.10.61 01:00 am 310°  


Table 3. The Asteroids in Betty Hill's Star Map on 20.10.1961 (1)

Name Orbital Period (Earth Years) Distance to Earth/Sun (AU) Solar Longitude Solar Latitude Right Ascension (RA) Declination Magnitude Orbital Inclination Radius(km)
Pallas 4.61 2.318/3.084 35° 31° 22h43'4" 755 9.1 34.81° 457
Interamnia 5.36 4.456/3.493 209° 13h25'8" 2253 12.3 17.30° 167
Europa 5.46 3.748/2.928 166° 53° 11h53'3" 437 12.1 7.44° 156
Psyche 5.00 3.551/3.07 137° 21° 10h17'1" 1001 11.9 3.09° 132
Daphne 4.59 3.031/2.521 138° 18° 10h19'5" 1017 12.5 15.78° 91
Pretoria 6.29 4.100/3.924 119° 38° 8h49'5" 225 14.8 20.55° 88


Table 4. The Planets in Betty Hill's Star Map on 20.10.1961 (1)

Planet Orbital Period (Earth years) Mass (Earth masses) Distance to Earth/Sun (AU) Heliocentric Longitude Right Ascension Declination Magnitude
Mercury 0.241 0.055 0.669/0.339 14°16' 13h58'5" -14°12' 2.3
Venus 0.615 0.805 1.502/0.719 147°59' 12h11'2" 0°28' -3.8
Earth 1.000 1.000 0.000/0.996 26°25' 0h00 0°00' 0.0
Mars 1.881 0.106 2.474/1.542 232°47' 14h40'0" -15°39' 1.5
Jupiter 11.862 314.031 4.949/5.082 309°44' 20h02'8" -21°08' -2.4
Saturn 29.457 94.026 10.020/10.022 299°21' 19h42'3" -21°38' 0.3
Uranus 84.020 14.325 18.933/18.407 146°57' 10h07'7" 12°18' 5.5
Neptune 164.78 16.944 31.343/30.379 220°58' 14h34'6" -13°21' 8.0
Pluto 247.220 0.002 34.287/33.633 158°08' 11h04'1" 19°47' 14.3

NOTES:

  1. Tables 2, 3, and 4 were done with the databases of "The New Solar System" and "Dance of the Planets."

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. John G. Fuller, The Interrupted Journey; SBN 425-03002-4, 1966. (Berkley paperback version ISBN 0-425-04388-6.).
  2. MUFON, UFO-Symposium Proceedings 1974, page 70.
  3. Fuller, The Interrupted Journey, page 208.
  4. Contact UFO - Alien Abduction.
  5. Fuller, The Interrupted Journey, page 348.
  6. ASTRONOMY Magazine (December 1975), The Zeta Reticuli Incident. Note: This is available as an offprint (with related commentary by Jeffrey L. Kretsch, Carl Sagan, Steven Soter, Robert Schaeffer, Marjorie Fish, David Saunders, and Michael Peck) through Stanton T. Friedman, 79 Pembroke Crescent, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 2V1 CANADA for US$5 at the time of writing.
  7. Fuller, The Interrupted Journey, page 260
  8. Mike Smithwick, Distant Suns. Virtual Reality Laboratories, U.S.A.
  9. ASTRONOMY Magazine, The Zeta Reticuli Incident, special edition, p. 24
  10. Dance of the Planets. arc-science-simulation-software, U.S.A. P.O. Box 1955, Loveland CO 80539
  11. Fuller, The Interrupted Journey, page 50
  12. J.Kelly Beatty und Andrew Chaikin, The New Solar System. (ISBN 0-521-36965-7, 3. edition, 1990)
  13. Richard C.Hoagland, The TERRESTRIAL CONNECTION - THE U.N. BRIEFING. BC Video, New York, U.S.A.
  14. Vague d'OVNI sur la Belgique, SOBEPS, Bruessel 1991; Zweitausendeins 1993, ISBN 3-86150-008-6.
  15. Richard C.Hoagland, The Monuments of Mars - A City on the Edge of Forever. ISBN 1-55643-118-X, 1992.
  16. J.Kelly Beatty and Andrew Chaikin, The New Solar System, page 235.
  17. Carl Sagan, Jerome Hagel; Nachbarn im Kosmos (Originally: The Cosmic Connection, An Extraterrestrial Perspective), Publisher Kindler, Munich, ISBN 3 453 00623

 - FIN -